Install Munin On Ubuntu 10.04

Munin is a networked resource monitoring tool that can help analyze resource trends and “what just happened to kill our performance?” problems. It is designed to be very plug and play. A default installation provides a lot of graphs with almost no work.

Install

To start this tutorial you will need a web server, both Lighttpd and Apache will do the job. For this tutorial I will use Lighttpd which is available from the Ubuntu Repositories.

sudo aptitude install lighttpd

You will also need PHP installed on the system.

How to properly install APF (Advanced Policy Firewall) on CentOS or Ubuntu

This guide will show you how to properly install APF firewall, one of the better known Linux firewalls available, on different Linux distros like Redhut/CentOS and Debian/Ubuntu. Configuration part doesn't differ from distro to another distro, so reading the official README file or googling will suffice.

sysv-rc-conf is RedHut/CentOS chkconfig alternative for Debian/Ubuntu

The sysv-rc-conf program gives an easy to use interface for managing "/etc/rc{runlevel}.d/" symlinks. The interface comes in two different flavors, one that simply allows turning services on or off and another that allows for more fine tuned management of the symlinks.

Unlike most programs configuration of the levels, you can edit startup scripts for any runlevel, not just the current.
To install just need to run the command:


sudo apt-get install sysv-rc-conf

Once installed run the command:


sudo sysv-rc-conf

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Locking Down Your Linux Server with APF + BFD

If you allow SSH access to your server, there are some simple steps you can take to restrict access and protect yourself from brute force attacks. Two of my favorite scripts to do this are Advanced Policy Firewall coupled with Brute Force Detection, both by R-FX Networks.

3 Steps to Perform SSH Login Without Password Using ssh-keygen & ssh-copy-id

You can login to a remote Linux server without entering password in 3 simple steps using ssky-keygen and ssh-copy-id as explained in this article.

ssh-keygen creates the public and private keys. ssh-copy-id copies the local-host’s public key to the remote-host’s authorized_keys file. ssh-copy-id also assigns proper permission to the remote-host’s home, ~/.ssh, and ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.

This article also explains 3 minor annoyances of using ssh-copy-id and how to use ssh-copy-id along with ssh-agent.

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Securing .bash_history file. Make sure your Linux system users won’t hide or delete their .bash_history

If you’re running multi user login Linux system, you have probably realized that there are some clever users that prefer to prevent their command line executed commands to be logged in .bash_history.
To achieve that they use a number of generally known methodologist to prevent the Linux system from logging into their $HOME/.bash_history file (of course if running bash as a default user shell).

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How to list all installed packages in Ubuntu, CentOS and other Linux systems?

There are several ways to list installed packages in Ubuntu, like: sudo dpkg-query -Wf '${Installed-Size} - ${Package}n \n' | sort -n sudo aptitude search '?installed' In CentOS run one of these commands: yum list installed On any Linux machine with rpm installed: You need to use rpm command to display all installed packages in Linux.

Red Hat/Fedora Core/CentOS Linux

Type the following command to get list of all installed software
# rpm -qa | less

How to extract and theme Drupal 7 fields out of render($page['content']?

Drupal7's page.tpl.php uses $page['content'] variable to print all the stuff. So if you want to remove <?php print render($page['content']); ?> and instead want to print content fields separately, then take note of the following.

Instead of removing print render($content) you can use the hide() function to remove the field from $content and then the render() function to print our field somewhere else in the template.

For example, for an image field called field_image_captures use hide() to prevent it from printing out in $content:

<?php
hide($content['field_image_captures']);

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Five points to keep in mind when purchasing your next server rack

A server rack is a metal enclosure deployed in data centers, server rooms, computer rooms, and wiring closets whose main current function is to securely house 19" rack mountable servers. The EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance) standard server rack is a 19 inch wide rack enclosure with rack mount rails which are 17 3/4" (450.85 mm) apart and whose height is measured in 1.75" (44.45 mm) unit increments.

Your Drupal cron might be currently failing simply because your server time is ahead or behind

Per instructions on http://drupal.org/cron I've added the the following line to server's cron job:

# crontab -e

44 * * * * /usr/bin/lynx -source http://akyl.net/cron.php

The time on the upper right corner of my MacPro's display was showing exactly 1.43 pm. After one minute passed I checked the status of cron on http://akyl.net/admin/reports/status and, alas, cron didn't yet run. Googling gave lot's of long discussions like one on http://drupal.org/node/143519 just quickly glancing on which gets you confused with lot's of possible reasons for the failure.

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